Note: We are not veterinarians and do not recommend medications; we simply share information on what works for us and our goats.
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Ammonium Chloride (NH4CL)—Good to have on hand for home treatment of urinary calculi build up in wethers, and sometimes bucks, due to diet changes or simply too much grain, especially corn. Symptoms: Tail twitching, restlessness, anxiety, a "hunched-up" body posture as the goat strains to urinate. Urinary calculi build up can cause death and should not be left untreated. Call a veterinarian if the urine flow is no more than a dribble for a day. Ammonium Chloride dissolves the stones in the urinary tract and bladder.
To a wether who had almost complete blockage and was visited by the veterinarian, we administered penicillin injections for 5 days as a precautionary measure against infection and also administered orally for one week ¾ tsp, approximately 0.1 oz. Ammonium Chloride dissolved in 30-40 cc apple juice for palatability and administered orally through a syringe.
Ammonium Chloride tastes horrible and burns the throat. Judging from the gag reflex, this 0.1 oz. , ¾ tsp, was the maximum we could have gotten down him. This was followed by a carrot or apple slices to help cover the taste and soothe the throat.
We decided to go with the smaller doses, but our wether had veterinary treatment and pizzle removal first to relieve the blockage.
Feed hay and lots of water after the urine begins to flow again.
Water intake during blockage can be hazardous.
Dosages vary with different sources; we use only what our goats tolerate. Colorado State University Extension Guidelines for Ammonium Chloride use in treatment of calculi build-up.
Ammonium Chloride can be used as for prevention of urinary stones by adding 1 tsp per goat per day to regular feed or water. For our boys, we administer 1 tsp per week for 7 bucks and wethers mixed with their regular loose minerals at feeding time.
Can be used as a treatment by adding 1 Tablespoon to 2 cups water to try to dissolve calculi before resorting to calling the veterinarian. Administer daily until urine flow returns to normal; however, a goat should never go more than 24 hours with only a trickle of urine flow before a veterinarian is consulted. (I have read about one farmer using 1.5 tsp in a drench to unblock a 200 lb. goat.)
Aquaphor—Healing ointment that seals and softens wounds and scabs to promote faster healing. We often apply Aquaphor on top of Betadine to promote healing.
Arnica—Gel—Apply thoroughly to affected area for bruising or sprains until healed. In addition, we sometimes administer up to 3 arnica pills 2X per day for bruising or sprains.
Aspirin—Regular strength 1 tablet per 10 pounds of body weight for pain, swelling, fever over 102.5. Can be administered 2X per day.
Barrier II Wound Care Spray—An antiseptic and pain reliever containing iodine and lidocaine is another handy wound treatment.
Betadine—A good, all-purpose antiseptic to keep on hand for treating wounds. We use Betadine rather than alcohol to mark injection sites so that we know exactly which spot has had antiseptic applied.
B-Complex—Normally 5 CC per 100 lbs. Always check label for dosage. For stress and for weak goats. We give our goats a dose the day before and/or the day of travel to reduce stress. We also use B-Complex to boost the immune system when inner eyelids are light pink.
Blood Stop Powder--Used as an aid to stop bleeding from minor cuts or wounds. We keep this product on hand and use it any time a hoof is trimmed too closely and causes capillary bleeding or when disbudding causes continued bleeding after the area is sterilized with betadine.
Sheep & Goat Liquid B-12—A “super concentrate” oral med produced by Rooster Booster. We have found this med good for boosting energy and regaining health in anemic goats. We give doses of 5-10cc, depending upon the size of the goat.
CDT—(Clostridium Perfringes Types C & D-Tetanus Toxoid) is a preventative against enterotoxemia and tetanus caused by Types C & D clostridium tetani. We administer 2cc of CDT to all adult goats annually. The does receive their annual booster one month prior to delivering kids. Kids whose dams have been vaccinated receive their first CDT vaccine at 6 weeks of age and their second dose 21 days later.Fiasco Farms recommends that kids whose dams have not received a CDT vaccine prior to delivery receive their first 2cc dose at one month of age, their second dose 21 days later and their third dose 21 days after that. CDT injection sites often develop cysts despite efforts to clean and use antiseptic on the area. These cysts often disappear, sometimes drain on their own, and can be removed by owners who want to make a small incision with an X-acto blade and excise them. All cysts and abscesses should be treated as infectious and handled with preventive care including wearing gloves and flushing the area with Iodine and applying antibiotic ointment. Onion Creek Ranch has an informative page on causes and treatment of abscesses.
Electrolytes--Used to help rehydrate a goat that has diarrhea, to help maintain essential mineral and water balance and to give an boot to cells and energy. Can be purchased or homemade. I have found that goats like the taste of this homemade eltrolyte. I give as 50 cc at a time orally in a drench to any kid with scours and several times a day until the kid is back to pooping normal, round goat pellets. Of course, the cause of diarrhea must be determined and addressed, such as change in feed, stress, worm overload.
Ivomec—Injectable dewormer for Cattle & Swine 1% Sterile Solution (Merck) (Agrilabs produces the generic, much less expensive product, Agri-Mectin.). 1 ML per 20 pounds for treatment of lungworms, gastrointestinal roundworms and larvae. Works much better if given orally. Measure with a syringe and remove needle before squirting dewormer into back of goat’s mouth. Safe for pregnant does. Administered to does the day after birthing and to all kids at 1 month of age. We administer broad spectrum dewormers a second time 21 days after the first dose to kill residual eggs and larvae. Although worms are a silent killer among goats, we no longer use dewormers with adult goats on a routine basis. Instead of the old monthly deworming routine, we now use the Famacha Chart as a guide to monitor inner eyelid color (should be medium to dark pink), and we monitor our goats' poop. We deworm individual goats when their inner eyelids are light rather than medium or dark pink. We monitor poop for signs of tapeworm (Along with round worms, one of the few worms visible to the naked eye; looks like white grains of rice.) and for soft, clumpy poop versus nice hard, round pellets. If the soft, clumpy poop is not caused by diet (nutrient-rich food, green grass, etc.,) we consider deworming the goat.
Ivermectin (Pour-on for Cattle)—Topical solution used on goats for external parasites only. Administer at 3X the cattle dose. We give 1 cc per 20 lb. for goats. Good general treatment early spring or late fall to ward off external parasites. Can be administered weekly for problem infestations, such as mites. Also, after weekly treatments have ended, Ivermectin Pour-on treatment can be followed by administration of Nu-Stock to problem areas, such as dorsal area, legs, tail area and sternum.
Molly’s Herbal Wormer—We have used Molly’s Herbal Worm Kit Formula #1 and Formula #2 successfully for one year and will use it again in the future.
Noromectin—Clear, Injectable broad spectrum dewormer used like Ivomec. Cattle & Swine 1% Sterile Solution (Norbrook Laboratories). 1 ML per 20 pounds for treatment of lungworms, gastrointestinal roundworms and larvae. Works much better if given orally. Measure with a syringe and remove needle before squirting dewormer into back of goat’s mouth. Safe for pregnant does. Administered to does the day after birthing and to all kids at 1 month of age. We administer broad spectrum dewormers a second time 21 days after the first dose to kill residual eggs and larvae. Although worms are a silent killer among goats, we no longer use dewormers with adult goats. Instead of the old monthly deworming routine, we now use the Famacha Chart as a guide to monitor inner eyelid color (should be medium to dark pink), and we monitor our goats' poop. We deworm individual goats when their inner eyelids are light rather than medium or dark pink. We monitor poop for signs of tapeworm (Along with round worms, one of the few worms visible to the naked eye; looks like white grains of rice.) and for soft, clumpy poop versus nice hard, round pellets. If the soft, clumpy poop is not caused by diet (nutrient-rich food, green grass, etc.,) we consider deworming the goat. Choose a broad spectrum dewormer and be consistent with its use. We used Ivomec for several years and now use Noromectin. We will continue to search for the best dewormer for our goats and our region as parasites build resistance to current dewormers. It is always good to have your veterinarian conduct a fecal count to determine the parasites present in your herd and to monitor treatment results in your goats.
Nu-Stock--Effective for skin disorders, hair loss, mites, ear mites, wounds, cuts. Non-toxic topical treatment, stops itching, promotes hair growth. Ingredients: Sulfur, pine oil, mineral oil. We use Pierce’s All Purpose Nu-Stock for use on animals. Can be used as a follow-up treatment to Ivermectin Pour-on.
Penicillin—For infection. 1 ML per 25 lb. once a day for 5-14 days. Never less than 5 days.
Pepto Bismol--Helps soothe goats with diarrhea after treatment for the cause of the diarrhea has been administered. Pepto Bismol can be administered every 4-6 hours in the following dosages: Newborns 2 cc, Kids at or near one-month 5 cc, adult goats 10-15 cc.
Probiotics--An oral treatment that boosts life-supporting bacteria in the goat's digestive system when the good bacteria living in the gut and stomach reaches a point of imbalance with disease-producing bacteria that live in the intestines and can cause diarrhea. Probiotics come in powder form, are inexpensive and are good to keep on hand. Yogurt with live active culture will also serve as a good probiotic to boost the life-supporting bacteria in the goat's rumen.
Triple Antibiotic Ointment—Can be used topically for infections in goats.
Red Cell—6 cc per 100 lb. Although normally given to horses, we use Red Cell successfully with goats as well. It serves as an iron supplement and can be administered to weak goats in addition to Vitamin B Complex. To boost energy levels in stressed goats, administer over a 3-day period. For weak or anemic goats, administer over a 7-day period.
SafeGuard—For tapeworms only; does not work for other parasites; safe for pregnant and lactating goats. Follow dosage instructions on product or increase to 0.9 CC for every 22 lb. and always administer for 3 consecutive days. Tapeworms are common but not a regular occurrence. The unmistakable tapeworm larvae, looking like living grains of rice, show up in goat poop. We treat the infected goat immediately. We have only had two occurrences, both in kids, and we immediately treated all kids and any adults who showed signs of clumpy poop or who seemed to have low weight. SafeGuard flushed out the whole adult parasites (visible in the poop) in the infected kid. It is good to repeat the treatment 21 days later to kill any remaining larvae and eggs. As a preventive, we treat all our kids monthly at one-month through 4-months of age.
Sulmet—(or the generic Di-Methox—sulfadimethoxine concentrated solution 12.5%.) for prevention and treatment of coccidiosis. 5 day treatment; 1 CC per 5 lbs. day one; 1 CC per 10 lbs. days 2-5. We have used this med as a coccidiosis preventive in all kids beginning at 1 month of age and continuing each month for the first 3 months. We have only found this product in gallon containers but found it to be a worthwhile investment. We have found Sulmet to be much more effective than Corid. We are always ready to administer another 5-day treatment for any kid under one-year of age with diarrhea that is not caused by diet, especially any dark watery diarrhea that has an especially foul odor. Sulmet is a must-have in your goat medicine chest. With any diarrhea, we make sure the goat has plenty of dry hay to munch. I also draw up a little syrup and water to hide the bad taste and prevent the goat from gagging and spitting out the medication. We now use only Toltrazuril as a coccidia preventive.
Tetanus Antitoxin—.5 ML for kid; 1 ML for adult with puncture wound or just before tattooing, castrating or disbudding.
Toltrazuril--A coccidiostat used to treat or prevent coccidiosis. We administer 1cc per 5 lb. orally one time to kids at one-month, two-months and three-months of age as a preventive. Any kid up to one-year of age with diarrhea not caused by change in diet is treated with Toltrazuril. Available from Horse PreRace suppliers. Although it is more expensive, we prefer the one-time Toltrazuril dose over the 5-day Sulmet treatment against the silent killer coccidiosis. Cocci can live in even the cleanest environments and cause a tell-tale black, very stinky diarrhea, not the green diarrhea caused from eating fresh green forage. However, sometimes the diarrhea is not as obvious as lethargy, standing off away from the rest of the herd and, in the final stages, bottle-jaw (a swelling of the lower jaw that must be treated immediately).
Triple Antibiotic Ointment—Can be used topically for infections in goats. We keep it and Betadine on hand in our goat bag that goes to the barn with us on each visit.
Valbazen—Another recommended tapeworm treatment among goat farmers. Recommended oral dosage is at a rate of 1 cc per 10 lb. of goat weight; not to be administered to pregnant or lactating does. I use the Purdue University Dosage Chart for goat worming meds: http://www.luresext.edu/goats/training/GoatDewormerChart.pdf We used Valbazen with a newly purchased kid who showed tapeworm signs but for whom SafeGuard did not flush out the tapeworms. Wait at least 10 days after administering SafeGuard before administering Valbazen, then stick with Valbazen for that goat in the future so as not to rotate dewormers. Dewormer rotation should occur only every 3 years minimum.